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historie:ted_nelson [2013/05/01 13:18]
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historie:ted_nelson [2013/05/01 13:21] (nuværende)
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 +**Theodor Holm Nelson** (født [[jernbaner:​1937]]) er amerikansk [[sociolog]],​ [[filosof]] og pioner i [[dokumenter:​informationsteknologi]]. Han skabte begrebet "​[[dokumenter:​hypertekst|hypertext]]"​ i [[jernbaner:​1963]] og offentliggjorde det i [[jernbaner:​1965]]. Han opfandt også andre ord, bla. //​[[dokumenter:​hypermedia]]//,​ ''​[[dokumenter:​transclusion]]'',​ ''​[[dokumenter:​virtuality]]'',​ //​[[dokumenter:​intertwingularity]]//​ and //​[[dokumenter:​teledildonics]]//​. Hovedlinjen i hans arbejde har været at gøre computerteknologi let tilgængelig for alle. Hans motto er:
  
 +<​blockquote>​Brugergrænsefladen bør være så enkel, at den i en nødsituation kan forstås af en nybegynder på 10 sekudner.</​blockquote>​
 +
 +Nelson grundlagde [[dokumenter:​Projekt Xanadu|Xanadu-projektet]] i 1960. Målet var at skabe et computernetværk med en simpel brugergræsneflade. Anstrengelserne blev dokumenteret i 1974 i hans bøger //Computer Lib// og //Dream Machines// og i 1981 i //​Litterære maskiner//. En stor del af sit voksne liv har han brugt på at arbejde med og fremme Xanadu.
 +
 +Af en række årsager, der stadig debatteres, blev Xanadu-projektet aldrig en succes. Journalisten Gary Wolf offenligjorde en ikke særligt flatterende historie om Nelson og Xanadu i juni 1995 udgaven af [[Wired magazine]]. Nelson udtrykte sin afsky på sin web-site og truede med at sagsøge Gory Jackal. [[http://​ted.hyperland.com/​whatsay/​]].
 +
 +Nogle elementer af Xanadu er ved at blive virkeliggjort med [[dokumenter:​Tim Berners-Lee]] opfindelse af [[dokumenter:​World Wide Web]]. Webbet skylder Xanadu meget for inspiration,​ men Nelson bryder sig ikke om World Wide Web, [[dokumenter:​XML]] og al indlejret [[dokumenter:​markup]] og han betragter Berners Lees arbejde som en oversimplificering af sit eget arbejde.
 +
 +HTML er lige hvad vi prøver at undgå; altdi brudte links, links der kun går udad, citater du ikke kanfølge til deres oprindelse, ingen versionsstyring,​ ingen rettighedsstyring. Ted Nelson ([[http://​xanadu.com.au/​ted/​TN/​WRITINGS/​TCOMPARADIGM/​tedCompOneLiners.html|Ted Nelson one-liners]])
 +
 +
 +'''​Theodor Holm Nelson'''​ (born [[June 17]] [[1937]]) is an [[United States|American]] [[sociologist]],​ [[philosopher]],​ and pioneer of [[information technology]]. ​ He coined the term "​[[hypertext]]"​ in 1963 and published it in 1965.  He also is credited with first use of the words ''​[[hypermedia]]'',​ ''​[[transclusion]]'',​ ''​[[virtuality]]'',​ ''​[[intertwingularity]]''​ and ''​[[teledildonics]]''​. The main thrust of his work has been to make computers easily accessible to ordinary people. His motto is:
 +
 +<​blockquote>​A user interface should be so simple that a beginner in an emergency can understand it within ten seconds.</​blockquote>​
 +
 +Ted Nelson promotes four maxims: "most people are fools, most authority is malignant, God does not exist, and everything is wrong"​. {{Fact|date=June 2007}}
 +
 +==Career==
 +Nelson founded [[Project Xanadu]] in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. The effort is documented in his 1974 book ''​Computer Lib/Dream Machines''​ and the 1981 ''​Literary Machines''​. ​ Much of his adult life has been devoted to working on Xanadu and advocating it.
 +
 +The Xanadu project itself failed to flourish, for a variety of reasons which are disputed. Journalist Gary Wolf published an unflattering history, ''​The Curse of Xanadu''​[http://​www.wired.com/​wired/​archive/​3.06/​xanadu.html],​ on Nelson and his project in the June, 1995 issue of [[Wired magazine]]. Nelson expressed his disgust on his website[http://​ted.hyperland.com/​whatsay/​],​ referring to Wolf as a "Gory Jackal",​ and threatened to sue him.
 +
 +Nelson claims some aspects of his vision are in the process of being fulfilled by [[Tim Berners-Lee]]'​s invention of the [[World Wide Web]]. However, Nelson says he dislikes the World Wide Web, [[XML]] and all embedded [[markup language|markup]],​ and regards Berners-Lee'​s work as a gross over-simplification of his own work:
 +
 +<​blockquote>​HTML is precisely what we were trying to PREVENT&​mdash;​ ever-breaking links, links going outward only, quotes you can't follow to their origins, no version management, no rights management. &ndash; Ted Nelson ([http://​xanadu.com.au/​ted/​TN/​WRITINGS/​TCOMPARADIGM/​tedCompOneLiners.html Ted Nelson one-liners ])
 +</​blockquote>​
 +
 +Nelson is working on a new information structure, [[ZigZag (software)|ZigZag]],​ which is described on the Xanadu project website, which also hosts two versions of the Xanadu code.
 +
 +He is currently a philosopher and visiting professor at [[Oxford University]] working in the fields of [[information]],​ computers, and human-machine interfaces.
 +
 +==Education and awards==
 +Nelson earned a [[Bachelor'​s degree]] in philosophy from [[Swarthmore College]] in 1959, a [[Master'​s degree]] in sociology from [[Harvard University]] in 1963 and a [[Doctorate]] in Media and Governance from [[Keio University]] in 2002.  ​
 +
 +In 1998, at the Seventh WWW Conference in Brisbane, Australia, Ted was awarded the [[Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award]]. He told the audience that it was the first award that he had ever received for his work.
 +
 +In 2001 he was knighted by France as "​Officier des Arts et Lettres"​. ​ In 2004 he was appointed as a Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, and associated with the [[Oxford Internet Institute]],​ where he is currently conducting his research.
 +
 +He is the son of the late [[Emmy Award]]-winning [[television director|director]] [[Ralph Nelson]] and the [[Academy Awards|Academy Award]]-winning [[Actor|actress]] [[Celeste Holm]]. His ethnicity is primarily [[Norwegian American|Norwegian-American]].
 +
 +== Bibliography ==
 +  * ''​Life,​ Love, College, etc.''​ (1959)
 +  * ''​Computer Lib: You can and must understand computers now/Dream Machines: New freedoms through computer screens&​mdash;​a minority report''​ (1974), Microsoft Press, rev. edition 1987: ISBN 0-914845-49-7 ​
 +  * ''​The Home Computer Revolution''​ (1977)
 +  * ''​[[Literary Machines]]: *''​Literary Machines: The report on, and of, Project Xanadu concerning word processing, electronic publishing, hypertext, thinkertoys,​ tomorrow'​s intellectual... including knowledge, education and freedom''​ (1981), Mindful Press, Sausalito, California.
 +  **Publication dates as listed in the 93.1 (1993) edition: 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993
 +  * ''​The Future of Information''​ (1997)
 +
 +  * ''​[http://​jodi.tamu.edu/​Articles/​v05/​i01/​Nelson/​ A Cosmology for a Different Computer Universe: Data Model, Mechanisms, Virtual Machine and Visualization Infrastructure]''​. Journal of Digital Information,​ Volume 5 Issue 1. Article No. 298, [[July 16]], [[2004]]
 +
 +== External links ==
 +  *[[http://​ted.hyperland.com|Ted Nelson'​s homepage]]
 +  *[[http://​xanadu.com.au/​ted|another Ted Nelson'​s homepage]]
 +  *[[http://​www.mprove.de/​diplom/​referencesNelson.html|detailed Ted Nelson bibliography]]
 +  *[[http://​www.xanadu.net´|Xanadu project webpage]]
 +  *[[http://​transliterature.org|Transliterature - A Humanist Design]]
 +  *[[http://​www.latrobe.edu.au/​screeningthepast/​firstrelease/​fr_18/​BBfr18a.html| ''​The Magical Place of Literary Memory: Xanadu''​]] in [[http://​www.latrobe.edu.au/​screeningthepast|Screening the Past]], July 2005 by Belinda Barnet
 +  *[http://​www3.iath.virginia.edu/​elab/​hfl0155.html ''​Ted Nelson and Xanadu''​],​ in ''​The Electronic Labyrinth'',​ 1993
 +  *[http://​wired-vig.wired.com/​wired/​archive/​3.06/​xanadu.html The Curse of Xanadu], June 1995 Wired  article by Gary Wolf
 +  *[http://​www.wired.com/​wired/​archive/​3.09/​rants.html reactions to The Curse of Xanadu], September 1995 Wired magazine, from [[Vint Cerf]] and Ted Nelson, ​
 +  *[http://​web.archive.org/​web/​20041009214354/​http://​www.ics.uci.edu/​~ejw/​csr/​nelson_pg.html Orality and Hypertext]: An Interview with Ted Nelson
 +  *[http://​ted.hyperland.com/​TQdox/​zifty.d9-TQframer.html ''​Way Out Of The Box ''​],​ by Theodor Nelson, [[October 8]], [[1999]]
 +  *[http://​www.file.org.br/​file2005/​textos/​symposium/​eng/​tednelson.htm Software and Media for a New Democracy]a talk given by Ted Nelson at the [http://​www.file.org.br File festival] Symposium/​November/​2005
 +  *[http://​www.wired.com/​wired/​archive/​13.08/​tech.html Wired article, recalling interview with Nelson], August 2005
 +  *[http://​webcast.oii.ox.ac.uk/?​view=Webcast&​ID=20051121_112 The Politics Of Internet Software 'Geeks Bearing Gifts'​],​ a talk given by Ted at the Oxford Internet Institute, [[November 30]], [[2005]]
 +  *[[http://​video.google.com/​videoplay?​docid=-8329031368429444452|Transclusion:​ Fixing Electronic Literature]],​ a talk given by Ted at [[Google]], [[January 29]], [[2007]]
 +  *[[http://​www.youtube.com/​watch?​v=En_2T7KH6RA|Ted Nelson demonstrate Xanadu]]
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